Open access dark fibre

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An open access dark fibre network or dark fiber network, typically contractually organized as indefeasible rights of use. [1]

Technically these are backhaul or middle mile networks, but sometimes reach last mile customers particularly in large urban centres. In London, UK [2] there are several companies providing it, after DFA (dark fibre access) was tariffed in UK [3]. Developing nations like South Africa have such networks as well [4].

Some examples of access: